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Bericht / Forschungsbericht / Abhandlung zugänglich unter
Responsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture
Hernández Serrano, P.
|BK - Klassifikation:
||21.3 Küsten- und Hochseefischerei
||Bericht / Forschungsbericht / Abhandlung
||FAO Fisheries Technical Paper (2006-2007)
|Kurzfassung auf Deutsch:
||Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently non-toxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases of humans, animals and plants. They have long been present in the environment and have played a crucial role in the battle between man and microbe. Many bacterial species multiply rapidly enough to double their numbers every 20-30 minutes, so their ability to adapt to changes in the environment and survive unfavourable conditions often results in the development of mutations that enable the species to survive changing external conditions. Another factor contributing to their adaptability is that individual cells do not rely on their own genetic resources. Many, if not all, have access to a large pool of itinerant genes that move from one bacteria cell to another and spread through bacterial populations through a variety of mobile genetic elements, of which plasmids and transposable elements are two examples. The capacity of bacteria to adapt to changes in their environment and thus survive is called resistance. Drug choices for the treatment of common infectious diseases are becoming increasingly limited and expensive and, in some cases, unavailable due to the emergence of drug resistance in bacteria and fungi â€“ resistance that is threatening to reverse much medical progress of the past 50 years. Dissemination of resistant micro-organisms may occur in both hospitals and communities. It is recognized that a major route of transmission of resistant microorganisms from animals to humans is through the food chain. In aquaculture, antibiotics have been used mainly for therapeutic purposes and as prophylactic agents. The contribution to antimicrobial resistance of antibiotics used in aquaculture is reviewed here, using a risk analysis framework. Some recommendations on responsible conduct in this context are proposed, aimed at diminishing the threat of build up of antimicrobial resistance.